Resurgences and spring wells

A resurgence is a natural outflow of groundwater emerging on level ground, deviated to the surface by layers of impermeable soil rich in loam and clay.
Watery habitats and vegetation along waterways in the resurgence area are important to the indigenous fauna and flora and constitute a formidable source of biodiversity.

The formation of a resurgence is a fairly rare natural phenomenon, as it relies on a series of quite unique events. A peculiar trait of the resurgence spring water is its constant temperature (11-12℃); seasonal variations affect the water with a delay of 2-4 months, making it the coldest in April and the warmest in October, thus creating specific microclimates. Resurgence spring water is also particularly clear, being filtrated by the bedrock.

Human intervention, aimed at reclaiming and cultivating the surrounding areas, has transformed the resurgences into spring wells: by enlarging the natural valleys in the land, water is led to surface and then channelled into a canal or “central axis” of the watercourse. The central axes of the watercourses join together to form irrigation ditches or actual resurgence rivers.